The Addis Ababa Declaration
1. We, the Heads of State and Government and Heads of Delegation representing the Continent of Africa, the African Union (AU) and its Institutions, and the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, have met in Addis Ababa, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, from 24 to25 May 2011, to continue our dialogue, deepen our friendship and enhance our cooperation, under the theme: Enhancing Partnership: Shared Vision.
2. We recall the Delhi Declaration adopted during our First Summit in New Delhi in April 2008 and the Framework of Cooperation and the associated Plan agreed upon thereafter as providing a concrete foundation for the consolidation of our strategic partnership and also reviewed the progress made in this regard since the First Summit. We also recall that Africa and India have been fraternal partners and allies in the struggle for independence and achievement of self-determination. We reaffirm that our partnership remains based on the fundamental principles of equality, mutual respect, mutual benefit and the historical understanding amongst our peoples.
3. We further agree that this partnership will continue to be guided by the principles of respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of States; commitment to deepen the process of African integration, dialogue among our civilizations to promote a culture of peace, tolerance and respect for religious, cultural and human rights, as well as gender equality, with a view to strengthening the trust and understanding between our peoples; recognition of diversity and levels of development between and within regions; collective action and cooperation for the common good of our States and peoples and our desire to nurture harmonious development in our plural, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic societies through the consolidation and development of our plural democracy.
4. We welcome the continuing transformation of the political, economic and social environment in Africa. Economic growth in Africa has revived to levels that existed before the financial crisis and many African countries are progressing rapidly, opening greater avenues for economic cooperation. Similarly, India’s economy continues to develop into one of the world’s growth nodes and has withstood the impact of the global recession well. Both Africa and India have young, dynamic populations with great expectations, drive and initiative. We recognize that their aspirations and vigour provide a concrete basis for expanding the frontiers of this partnership as an agenda for development. Africa and India therefore, have today a good platform to expand our partnership for development on the basis of these fundamentals.
5. We have thus decided to enhance our partnership with new initiatives for the mutual benefit of Africa and India. In recent years, this has included substantial financial flows from India to Africa in terms of grants, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and concessional loans that continue to contribute to capacity building in the socio- economic sectors, particularly in the human resource development, the development of the private sector, increasing support to infrastructure, agriculture and SMEs, leading to a substantial expansion of Indian investment in Africa and of trade between Africa and India. We agree, to build upon this by assisting each other to achieve inclusive growth, socio-economic development and self-reliance. Areas for such cooperation will include sharing strategies for sustainable development, poverty alleviation, healthcare and universal education, and sharing appropriate technologies. These new avenues for cooperation will enable us to add strategic depth to our partnership.
6. Our partnership enhances our ability to work together and address the global challenges of our times. In addressing these challenges, Africa and India continue to reiterate their intention to ensure that the interests of developing countries are safeguarded and that socio-economic development requirements of our various countries are guaranteed.
7. We urge the developed countries to take ambitious actions to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and also provide adequate financing and transfer of technology to support developing countries’ efforts to effectively address the impact of climate change. We reaffirm the importance of reaching an agreement on a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol as an indispensable step to preserve the integrity of the international climate change regime. We stress the importance of the Bali Action Plan of 2007 worked out under the aegis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in this regard. We notice the positive aspects of the Cancun Conference Climate Change negotiations in December 2010 and appeal to the developed countries to operationalise all the institutional arrangements included in the Cancun decisions. We express our firm commitment to a balanced outcome from the climate change negotiations which are commensurate with the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities on the basis of respective capabilities, in the process of COP17 which will be held in Durban, South Africa.
8. We take note of the African common position on Climate Change and support efforts towards combating drought and desertification in Africa, as well as support for Africa’s Great Green Wall Project.
9. We affirm the critical importance of South-South cooperation as an instrument that can effectively supplement existing international efforts and lead to tangible and real benefits for developing countries. We stress that South-South Cooperation should be a supplement to North-South Cooperation and not a substitute for it. We recognize that significant diversity prevails among individual countries in Africa, about thirty three (33) of which are listed among the Least Developed Countries. Collectively, these countries confront some of the most persistent, pervasive and complex development challenges. Accordingly, we will explore new and innovative ways to supplement the mainstream effort to assist these developing countries and look for out-of-the-box solutions.
10. We remain concerned with the recurrent trend of increasing global crisis that are of economic nature, such as the global food, energy and financial crisis. While recognizing the current economic recovery, we are still concerned with its sustainability. We underline the importance of supporting stable, long-term capital flows to developing countries to stimulate investment, especially in infrastructure. This will help enhance global demand, thus securing the long-term sustainability of the recovery and address developmental imbalances.
11. We urge major economies to work together and enhance macro-economic policy coordination. In this context, we acknowledge the G20 process as an important forum for international economic cooperation, and request fair representation of Africa in the evolving architecture of decision-making process in the global economic system.
12. We reiterate the importance of the UN Millennium Declaration and the need to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We reaffirm our commitment to achieving the MDGs by 2015, including through technical cooperation and financial support. Sustainable development models and unique paths of development in developing countries should be respected, including by guaranteeing the policy space of developing countries. We urge that aid commitments for developing countries must be fulfilled and that development assistance should not be reduced. We urge the developed countries to fulfill their obligations of achieving the target of 0.7% GNI as official development assistance (ODA) to developing countries. We also support African economic programmes within the context of Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), and Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP).
13. We underscore the need for a comprehensive and balanced outcome of the Doha Round, in a manner that gives weight to its mandate as a “development round”, based on progress already made. We reiterate the need for continuing solidarity between developing countries in this regard. We affirm the importance of ensuring that an acceptable agreement adequately protects the concerns of developing countries with regard to livelihood, food security and rural development. Equally, concerns need to be addressed on Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) services and rules. We urge all parties to oppose all forms of protectionism and trade distorting domestic support. We remain concerned that no significant progress has been achieved in key issues of interest to developing countries including India and those of Africa and therefore call, once more, on key players in the Doha Round to give priority to resolving all issues of critical concern to developing countries, especially regarding negotiation on agriculture.
14. We affirm our commitment to multilateralism and to strengthening the democratic structure of the United Nations (UN) to increase the participation of developing countries in decision-making processes. We emphasize the need for enhanced Africa-India cooperation at the UN, the G-77 and other multilateral fora, to foster common purpose in addressing areas of mutual concern. In the context of issues relating to international peace and security. We commend efforts made by the African Union Peace and Security Council in maintaining peace in Africa. Africa recalls, with appreciation, India’s principled support to and continuing involvement with UN peacekeeping operations, especially in the African continent. India appreciates the role of African countries in maintaining peace and security in the Continent and their participation in peace keeping missions in other parts of the world. It also commends Africa on its development of the African Standby Force, which will enhance the continent’s capacity to maintain peace and security.
15. We take note of UN Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 on Libya and stress that efforts to implement them should be within the spirit and letter of those resolutions. In this regard, we call for an immediate cessation of all hostilities in Libya and urge the parties in the conflict to strive towards a political solution through peaceful means and dialogue. We express support for the African Union High-Level Ad Hoc Committee initiative and the African Union roadmap for the peaceful and consensual resolution of the conflict .
16. Based on the strong partnership between Africa and India on international issues relating to peace and security, Africa welcomes India’s election to a non-permanent seat in the UN Security Council for the years 2011-2012. India expresses its appreciation for the support of African States in this election in October 2010. The African members of the UN Security Council and India affirm their commitment to coordinate closely during India’s tenure in the Council.
17. In this context, we underscore the imperative of urgent and comprehensive reform of the UN system. We share the view that the UN should function in a transparent, efficient and effective manner and that the composition of its central organs must reflect contemporary realities. The expansion of the UN Security Council, in permanent and non-permanent categories of membership, with increased participation of developing countries in both categories, is central to the process of reform and for enhancing the credibility of the United Nations.
18. India notes the common African position and the aspirations of the African countries to get their rightful place in an expanded UN Security Council as new permanent members with full rights as contained in the Ezulwini Consensus. Africa takes note of India’s position and its aspirations to become a permanent member with full rights in an expanded UN Security Council. We emphasize the need for Member States to exert utmost effort on the United Nations’ Security Council reform during the current session of the United Nations General Assembly.
19. We recognize that the security of all nations would be enhanced by a global, non- discriminatory and verifiable elimination of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. We reaffirm our commitment to the consensus in the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on Disarmament, which accorded priority to nuclear disarmament. We also express support for an International Convention Prohibiting the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Nuclear Weapons, leading to their destruction. We call for negotiating specific steps to reduce and finally eliminate nuclear weapons, leading to a world free from all weapons of mass destruction as envisaged in the Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan of 1988. We also look forward to the commencement of negotiations on the Treaty Banning the Production of Fissile Material for Nuclear Weapons and Other Nuclear Explosive Devices in the Conference on Disarmament.
20. We welcome the entry into force in July 2009, of the Africa Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Pelindaba Treaty) of 1995 and the efforts towards the operationalisation of the African Commission on Nuclear Energy (ACNE) in November 2010, which, among others, will promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy and technology within Member States.
21. We stress the importance of addressing the threat posed by illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons through full implementation of the UN Programme of Action on SALWs and welcome the African Union’s efforts towards that end.
22. We unequivocally condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. An act of terrorism anywhere is a threat to the entire international community. We recognize the need to further strengthen international cooperation to combat global terrorism and for compliance of all member states with all international terrorism conventions and related protocols and UN Security Council resolutions on counter-terrorism. We call on all States to cooperate with each other in prosecuting, extraditing and rendering legal assistance with regard to acts of international terrorism. In this connection, we deplore the tragic losses arising from terrorist attacks and call for the active prosecution of the authors of such crimes and their accomplices, and urge that they be brought to justice expeditiously. We further call on all countries to ensure that acts of cross-border terrorism do not occur, and that their territories are not made a base for terrorists. We strongly condemn kidnapping and hostage taking as well as the demands for ransom and political concessions by terrorist groups. We express serious concern at the increase in such incidents. Taking note of the African position on the condemnation of the payment of ransom to terrorist groups, we call for the urgent need to address this issue. We also agree to work to expeditiously finalize and adopt, a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism at the UN. We underscore the need to strengthen the implementation of AU mechanisms to prevent and combat terrorism.
23. We further stress the importance of addressing the threat posed by piracy off the Coast of Somalia and suffering caused by taking of hostages, and call on all States to cooperate in combating and eradicating the menace of piracy. In this context, Africa welcomes India’s support to efforts to safeguard shipping in the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean from piracy.
24. We also pledge to work to eradicate drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, organized crime and money laundering. In this regard, we call on all States to ratify and implement all relevant International Instruments relating to these crimes.
25. We have reviewed, with satisfaction, the progress made in the implementation of the Africa-India Framework of Cooperation and note in this regard, the four-year Plan of Action adopted in March 2010. Work is moving apace on the various elements of this Plan of Action, including the establishment of 21 capacity-building institutions in various countries of Africa. India is committed to substantially contribute to building African capacities through supporting education and capacity building institutions and in enhancing value addition and processing of raw materials in Africa. Africa appreciates the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme offered by India and believes it has the potential to increase African exports to India.
26. We stress that cooperation between Africa and India, as emerging from the First Africa-India Forum Summit, has been a true manifestation of South-South Cooperation. Our endeavour to find new ways of energizing our partnership by taking into account the emerging capabilities in Africa and India has found sustenance in the implementation of the Action Plan of our Framework of Cooperation. We deeply appreciate the implementation of the initiatives that Africa and India took since the first India – Africa Forum Summit in April 2008, in New Delhi. We also laud the further initiatives that have been announced by the Prime Minister of India at the Second Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa in May 2011. India, on the other hand, welcomes the new spirit of association that has facilitated these initiatives.
27. Our Agreement that Africa and India will go beyond bilateral linkages to strengthen partnerships with the African Union and the Regional Economic Communities of Africa, have borne fruit. The level of interaction between India and the African Union has increased manifold, particularly with the implementation of new AIFS initiatives after the success of the Pan- African e-Network Project. The relationships with the Regional Economic Communities have also been strengthened and India’s initiative to invite Africa’s Regional Economic Communities for a meeting in November 2010 was appreciated. The multi-tiered functional engagement which India has with Africa is a model for multilateral engagements around the world.
28. We also welcome the positive results of efforts to promote trade and investment, human resource development and infrastructure development in Africa. We commit ourselves to involving the private sector and civil society in Africa and India to widen the scope of our partnership.
29. We note with satisfaction that Trade Ministers from African countries and India met on 21 May, 2011 in Addis Ababa and take note of the Joint Statement issued by the Trade Ministers and lend our support to the ideas enunciated therein as indicators of our future cooperation. We appreciate that the Ministers had an in-depth discussion on the economic engagement between Africa and India, including the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme of India, cluster development initiatives and the identification of priority sectors of partnership. We also note with satisfaction the initiatives taken by the Trade Ministers in the establishment of Trade and Investment linkages between India and Africa and welcome the constitution of the India-Africa Business Council as well as the constitution of the annual India-Africa Trade Ministers’ Dialogue. We acknowledge the common platform shared by India and Africa in the WTO Doha Round and reiterate the core principles of Special and Differential (S&D) Treatment and obtaining more preferential treatment for all LDCs.
30. We recognize that this Second Africa-India Forum Summit will help to realize our common vision of a self-reliant and economically vibrant Africa and India. We are committed to work together towards a peaceful and more egalitarian international order, where the voices of Africa and India can be heard to pursue their desire for inclusive development, both internationally and domestically. Africa is determined to partner in India’s economic resurgence as India is committed to be a close partner in Africa’s renaissance.
31. We agree to add further substance to our Framework of Cooperation and to broaden exchanges to cover all facets of our relationship. We adopt, in this context, the Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation to supplement the existing Framework. We agree to institutionalize this Summit process. Accordingly, we agree that the next India – Africa Forum Summit will be held in 2014 in India.
32. The Prime Minister of India expresses his appreciation to the African Union Commission for hosting the Summit and to the Government and people of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for the hospitality extended to his delegation and to all participating leaders. The African leaders also express their appreciation to the Prime Minister of India for his participation.